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" A 1.007.047 ^B= 

raffl' Y 

How to Build an 

Texf Book for Students in Vicai 

Prk* 10 Cmis] 


South B^su^ 




5> c^ 


How to Build an 8-inch Grinder 

Prepared for Students in Technical, Vocational and 
Industrial Schools, and for the Apprentice in the Shop 

The student in the school shiop takes a deep interest in making 
parts for a machine, knowing that the machine will be assembled, 
and placed in operation in the school shop. This gives him an op- 
portunity to observe the reasons for the vari- 
ous operations on each job. The instructor 
will be relieved of endless and unnecessary 
detail, if the instruction plan in this book is 

Copyright 1920 by O'BRIEN BROS. 
—J. J. O'Brien, M. W. O'Brien 

••■Ml l*T»t^' 

^uth Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana, U. S. A. 

^■^ 428 Eas* Madison Street ^^^^^T^ 

Digitized by VnOOQlC 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

S-inch Bench Tool Room Emery Grinder 

8-Inch Bench Tool Room Emery Grinder 
Machined Complete on a 15-inch Sonth Bend Lathe 

Spindle Speed 1700 R. P. M. 

Size of Emery Wheels: 8" Diameter, %" Face, 

%" Hole. 
Net weight of Grinder as shown, including 

safety guards 50 lbs. 

Safety guards are not shown in cut. 

The accompanying half-tone was taken from 
a photograph of one of the 8-inch Tool Room 
Emery Grinders, which was built by Technical 
students according to instructions in this book. 
This machine complete is fitted with a column, 
pan and water pot, and countershaft — illustrated 
on pages 50 and 51 of this book. 

This 8-inch tool room emery grinder is an ex- 
cellent project for Vocational and Industrial 
Schools because at least one of these grinders 
can be used to good advantage in every school 

A project of this kind is an excellent thing for 
the school machine shop, as it embodies many 
kinds of both machine and bench work. It may 
appear a little difficult to the Instructor who 
has not had much machine shop experience, but 
it is really simple after the first Grinder is built, 
and it is not such a difficult matter with the aid 
of this book to build one Grinder. 

Over 100 school shops in the United States are 
at this time working on this project. Some schoolsp 
building this grinder in lots of twenty. ^ ""O" 

[ Two ] 


a ..■ 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

51 47 3i 

Names and Part Numbers of 8-Inch Bench Grinder 

23 Machine Bolts (4) 

29 Grinder Head 

30 Caps (2) 

31 Spindle 

32 Spindle Pulley 

33 Rest Brackets L. (2) 


34 "T" Rest 

35 "T" Rest Bracket 

36 Angle Rest 

37 Angle Rest Bracket 

38 Inside Flanges (2) 

39 Outside Flanges (2) 

[ Three ] 

45 R. H, 


Spindle Hex. Nut 

46 L. H. Spindle Hex. Nut 

47 Fillister Head Cap Screws (4) 

48 Headless Set Screw 

49 Sq. Head Set Screws (6) 

50 Oil Cups (2) 

51 Emery Wheels (2 

rews ioj 

(2) Dogle 

A — Reverse 
B — Back Gear Lever 
C — Back Gears 
D — Spindle Cone 
E — Head Stock 
F — Pace Plate 

G — Saddle 

H — Tool Post 

I — Compound Rest 

J — Tail Stock 

K — Tail Stock Hand Wheel 

L — Lathe Bed 

M — Lead Screw Bracket Head 

N — Legs 

O — Apron Hand Wheel 
P — Apron 
Q — Apron Clutch 

[ Four ] 

S-CrollFS^T^"" Crank 
V-Lead Screw V^OOQlC 

South Bend Lathe Works^ South Bend, Indiana 

Principal Parts of a Standard Engine Lathe 

On Page 4 we illustrate a Standard Screw Cut- 
ting Engine Lathe. We have lettered a few of 
the most important parts, so that the beginner 
may become familiar with their use. 

This Engine Lathe is equipped with automatic 
longitudinal feed and automatic cross feed. To 
operate the automatic longitudinal feed, loosen 
Knob "S" by unscrewing, then lift it up as 
far as it will go, and screw tight. Fasten Knob 
"Q" tight. The automatic longitudinal feed is 
now in operation. 

To release automatic longitudinal feed, simply 
unscrew Knob "Q," which releases the friction 

To connect the automatic cross feed, unscrew 
Knob "S" and push it down as far as it will go, 
then screw tight, fasten Knob "Q" tight. Now the 
automatic cross feed is connected. 

When the automatic cross feed is connected, 
the automatic longitudinal feed is disconnected. 
When the automatic longitudinal feed is con- 
nected the automatic cross feed is disconnected. 
Therefore it is impossible to have both feeds 
connected at the same time, and while one feed 
is in operation it is impossible for the other feed 
to drop in. 

For screw cutting neither of the automatic 
feeds are used, so when cutting a screw be sure 

to see that Knob "Q" is loose, not tight. In cut- 
ting a screw or thread, the split nuts are clamped 
on to the lead screw by Cam "T." For the detail 
of thread cutting see book entitled "How to Run 
a Lathe." 

Oil the lathe frequently. If the lathe is used 
every day, it should be oiled every morning be- 
fore starting. Use a good grade of machine oil, 
none other. Oil the head stock spindle, the back 
gear quill, the spindle cone, the thrust collar, the 
lead screw bearings, the apron gears and studs, 
the carriage bearings, the rear carriage gib; and 
move or operate each part by hand, to see that it 
moves freely, before starting lathe. 

For further information of details and parts of 
the Screw Cutting Engine Lathe, see little book 
entitled "How to Run a Lathe," described on 
page 64 of this book. 

CATAIiQG. Free interesting catalog, No. 
60, just off the press, describing the entire 
line of South Bend Lathes, showing prices 
of all lathes and attachments. Catalog 
nuailed free to any address. Give your 
street and number to insure delivery. 


[ Five ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 


To machine a shaft on centers 
in the lathe, it is necessary that it 
be centered. A hole is drilled and 
countersunk in each end so that 
the shaft may revolve on lathe 
centers. Before centering a piece 
of soft steel, care should be taken 
that the shaft is as straight as pos- 
sible, because the straighter the 
piece is, the smaller the diameter 
of the rough stock required. 

There are many ways of center- 
ing. The simplest is to chalk the 
end of the shaft to be centered. 
Scratch two lines at right angles 
to each other, and where these 
lines intersect will be the approxi- 
mate center of the shaft. See 
Fig. 4. 

Drive center punch on the intersection of lines 
on both ends of the shaft. Place the shaft thus 
punched, on the centers of the lathe, revolve by 
hand; if it does not run true, hold a piece of 
chalk to the shaft while revolving and it will 
mark the high spots. Place shaft in the vise 
once more, drive the center in the direction nec- 
essary to have the shaft run true. 


Centering an Irregular Piece 

Figure "M" shows the method of centering the 
T Rest, or any irregular part that has a round 

Chalk the ends of the part to be centered, and 
place the part to be turned on the "V" Block. 
With a surface gauge make a mark on both ends 
of the piece. Then revolve the piece on the"V" 
Block a quarter of a revolution, and make an- 
other mark on each end. Complete the four 
quarters of a revolution in this manner. The in- 
tersection of these marks will be the proper cen- 
ter point. 

If the piece to be machined is close to size in 
the rough so that very little stock is left for fin- 
ishing, care should be taken to see that the bar is 
straight as possible and that the center holes are 

[ six ] 

Digitized by 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

located accurately so that the shaft may be true 
all over when finished. 

Drill and countersink each end of the shaft 
until a depth is reached sufficient to support the 
shaft on the centers while it is being machined. 
A good method of countersinking is shown In 
Fig. 5. 

In centering a shaft that is over 3 or 4 pounds 
in weight, care should be taken to see that the 
weight of the shaft does not break the center 
drill. If the piece being centered is steel or iron, 
there should be oil used on the center drill, and 
the operator should feed the shaft slowly to the 

If for any reason a center drill breaks and 
part of the broken drill remains in the shaft, this 
broken part should be immediately removed. 
Sometimes you may be able to work the broken 
part out with a chisel, but occasionally it sticks 
so hard that it cannot be removed. In that case, 
the broken part of the drill left in the shaft must 
be annealed, and the only way to anneal it is to 
anneal the end of the shaft. For annealing see 
Page 59, Lathe Book. (How to Run a Lathe.) 

Long shafts may be centered with a breast 
drill or brace and bit. The regular countersinks 
may be used in the same manner. 


Countersinking a Shaft in the Lathe 

A drill chuck, holding a combined drill and 
countersink (See Fig. 5B, page 8) is fitted to the 
head spindle of lathe. The shaft has already 
been center punched. Place end of shaft on tail 

center and hold with left hand, and feed to the 
drill by turning the wheel of tail stock. Allow 
the countersink to enter the proper depth, coun- 
tersink the other end in the same manner, p 
-^'—-y o 

[ Seven ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Drill and Countersink Combined 

Fig. 5B shows a combined drill and counter- 
sink, which is both the center drill and counter- 
sink. Centering may also be done by a small 
twist drill for the center hole and a larger twist 
drill ground 60 degrees following as a counter- 

Proper Countersink 

Tig, 5B 

Tig. 8 

Tig, 9 

Figs. 8 and 9 show two styles countersink that 
are used to follow the small twist drill for coun- 

Fig. 7 shows the style of countersink which 
gives best results. A small hole is first drilled 
beyond the depth of the point of the lathe cen- 
ter; it is then countersunk on an angle of 60 de- 
grees to fit the lathe center. 

Improper Centering 

[ Eight ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Turning a Steel Shaft 

The illustration above shows a steel shaft be- 
ing machined on a lathe. The shaft is driven 
between centers by a common lathe dog that is 
firmly attached by a set screw, the tail of the 
dog enters the slot in the face plate. 

Lathe Dogs 

The common lathe dog is used for driving 
round or cylindrical pieces that are machined 
between centers on the lathe. 

Common Lathe Dog 

Clamp Lathe Dog 

The clamp lathe dog is used for the same pur- 
pose as the common dog, but is more practical 
for holding rectangular work. 

The names of a few Users of South Bend Lathes will be found on 

[ Nine 1 


South Bend Lathe Works^ South Bend, Indiana 

Patent Turning Tool 

Illustration herewith shows a Patent Turning 
Tool. Some mechanics prefer to use the Patent 
Tools rather than the forged steel lathe tools. 

123456789 10 11 12 

Forged Steel Lathe Tools 

Left-hand Side Tool 7 

Right-hand Side Tool 8 

Right-hand Bent Tool 9 

Right-hand Diamond Point 10 

Left-hand Diamond Point 11 

Round Nose Tool 12 

Cutting-ofiC Tool 
Threading Tool 
Bent Threading Tool 
Roughing Tool 
Boring Tool 
Inside Threading Tool 

Forged Steel Lathe Tools 

The twelve lathe tools illustrated have been 
selected as the most practical set of forged tools 
for general all-round work on the lathe. These 
tools are made both in carbon and the high speed 
steels. The size of the tools vary to suit the dif- 
ferent size lathes. 

Lathe Tools 

The drawings on page 11 show the application 
of the above twelve lathe tools. It is not neces- 
sary to use forged steel lathe tools, as the patent 
lathe tool shown herewith may be applied in the 
same way. 

The arrow shows the direction of the feed of 
the tool. In some cases the tool may be fed to 
advantage in two directions. For example, in 
drawing No. 1, the arrow shows the tool feeding 
out toward the periphery. This tool may also be 
fed in toward the center. Again, in drawing No. 
11, the boring tool is feeding to the left. This 
tool may also take a cut in feeding to the right. 

Patent Lathe Tools 

There are several lines of excellent patent 
lathe tools on the market for turning, boring 
thread cutting, knurling,^ej;<?.%.^^ ^y ^^ ^ ^ 



[ Ten ] 



» ► 





Digitized by^o 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

The Position of Cutting Edge of Tool 

In setting a tool for cutting threads, turning 
taper, or boring, the height of the cutting edge 
of the tool should be in a line with the axis or 
point of the lathe center. 

The position of the cutting edge of a turning 
tool for machining metal is quite important. In 

most work, we 
find that about 
5 degrees above 
the center gives 
. best results. 
(See Fig. 12.) 
The position of 
the tool also de- 
pends upon its 
clearance and 
rake, and upon the material to be cut as: cast 
iron, soft steel, or tool steel, etc. A little prac- 
tice will enable operator to learn the proper 
height on different jobs. 

Care should be taken that the cutting edge of 
the tool does not extend too far from the tool 
post, especially on a heavy cut, because the 
nearer the tool post is to the work, the more 
firmly the tool can be held. 

The surface scale on a piece of cast iron is 
often very hard and sometimes will ruin the 
cutting point of the tool. For this reason the 
first or roughing cut should be deep enough to 


get under the scale. The scale must also be 
remembered when turning a piece of steel, as 
some kinds of steel contain a scale that will 
quickly dull the cutting edge of the turning 

Grinding the Tool 

The efficiency of the cutting edge of a tool 
depends a great deal upon the way it is ground 
or sharpened. The tool should have plenty of 
clearance, a good rake and a clean cutting edge. 
The cutting edge of the tool is changed some- 
what for various metals. After grinding a tool 
it would be well to dress up the cutting edge 
by hand with a small oil stone. This will im- 
prove its wearing qualities. 

Direction of Feed With a Job on Centers 

In machining a job on centers in the lathe, 
the feed of the tool should always be, when 
possible, in the direction of the head spindle. 
The reason is obvious: When the carriage is 
feeding toward the head spindle and the tool 
taking a heavy chip, the pressure is on the 
head center which revolves with the work. 
Should the tool when taking a heavy chip feed 
toward the tail stock, then the pressure is on 
the tail center, which is stationary, and is. 

[ Twelve ] 

the tan center, wnich is stationary, and is, t 
therefore, liable to heat unless oiled ^fre£uentlyO|^^ 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Facing End of Shaft 

When a shaft is being machined on centers, 
if accurate work is to be done, the ends of shaft 
must be faced so that they will ride on the 
centers evenly. A side tool is usually used to 
do the facing. (See Fig. 11.) 

In facing with a side tool it may be neces- 
sary to face into the countersink hole. On 
reaching the edge of the countersink, tail center 

may be with- 
drawn slightly. 
This enables the 
side tool to face 
the end clean. 

When shaft 
is faced ready 
for general ma- 
chining, place a drop of oil on the tail stock 
center, also a drop in the countersunk hole of 
shaft. Adjust the tail stock center so that the 
shaft has a slight play on the centers (it must 
not turn hard on the centers), then fasten the 
tail stock spindle by the binding clamp. Keep 
oil on the tail center. 






Turning to a Shoulder 

The above illustrations. Figure "A" and 
Figure "B," show the advantage of using a 
Cutting-Off Tool in locating the shoulder on a 
turned shaft. Start the Cutting-Off Tool about 
1/32'' from the finished line of the shoulder 
and feed in until you reach a diameter about 
1/32'' larger than the finish size, then rough 
the stock off with a diamond point tool and 
finish the face of shoulder with a side tool. 

When we refer to 
mean book entitled ' 
Lathe." See page 64. 

Lathe Book, we 
'How to Run a 

For illustration, description and princi- 
pal dimensions of South Bend Lathes, see 
pages 62 and 63 of this book. 

[ Thirteen ] 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the T Rest Bracket 

Job No. 1. Part No. 86. Drawfngr No. 136. 

gates and sprues should be removed from the 
casting, by chipping, grinding and filing. 

2. CENTERING. To locate the centers, fol- 
low instructions shown on pages 6, 7 and 8. 

3. DRIVING. Attach a common lathe dog 
to the solid end of Rest Bracket. Place the 
bracket on centers, put a couple drops of oil 
on the tail center point, adjust the tail center 
so that the bracket has slight play on centers 
— no.t too loose; then clamp tail spindle firmly. 

4. CUTTING SPEED. The material, being 
cast iron, the proper cutting speed for Job No. 
1 is 55-feet per minute. This being the first 
job, perhaps it would be better not to run over 
40-feet per minute. Rule for Cutting Speed of 
Metals will be found on page 31 of book entitled 
"How to Run a Lathe." (See page 64.) 

5. HEIGHT OF TOOL. For the position of 
the cutting edge of tool, see explanation page 

6. FACING THE ENDS. To face the ends of 
bracket, see illustration Figure "R," page 52. 
This operation is further described on page 13, 
"Facing End of Shaft." After the end is faced 
true, remove the common dog, and attach 
Clamp Dog to the cored end of bracket, (see 
drawing Figure "O," page 52) and face the solid 
end of shaft. 

7. TURNING. Let the clamp dog remain at- 
tached to the cored end of bracket, and place 
the job on lathe centers. Select a diamond 
point turning tool, and take a roughing chip 
(see illustration Figure "O," page 52) the full 
length of the bracket. Always adjust the depth 
of the roughing cut so the cutting edge of tool 
will be underneath the scale. 

8. STRAIGHT TURNING. After the first, 
or roughing chip has been taken, caliper the 
turned part at both ends, to see that the piece 
is machined straight or parallel. If there is 
any tendency to turn taper, adjust the tail stock 
center in the proper direction. For straight 
and taper turning, see page 42 of book "How 
to Run a Lathe." 

9. FINISHING. The machined part of this 
bracket is to be turned and finished to %" 
diameter, in order to pass through a %" hole 
in the grinder rest bracket "L," shown on 
page 19; this may be seen better in half-tone 
on page 2. It is, therefore, better to defer fin- 
ishing chip until the holes in all four rest 
brackets have been bored. Leave diameter of 
the turned part of the rest bracket about 1/32" 
over size, so when the holes in all rest brack- 
ets are bored, the shanks may be turned to the 
proper size, in order to make a good fit in the 

. holes. ..„..._., „__^.e 

[ Fourteen ] 

Tap drill Yf,~ 

for Scfuare head SetScrev^'^ lon^ 
Number 49 

MatBrlal^Casf Iron 
No. Pimceo Required ^ 1 

DRJKWtNQ No- 135 I ^ART A/O. 35 


Sealm Work to figures 


[ Fifteen ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Angle Rest Bracket 

Job. No. 2. Part No. 87. Drawing No. 137. 

1. Machine Job No. 2 in the same way as 
Job No. 1, as the instructions of Job No. 1 will 
apply in every way to Job No. 2; the only dif- 
ference being the shaft or shank of Job No. 
2 is the longer. 

2. FINISHING. After taking the first or 
roughing chip on the diameter of shank, care 
should be taken to see that it is being turned 
parallel. If the cutting tool is at all dull, it 
should be sharpened, and the cutting edge 
rubbed with an oil stone, by hand. For caliper- 
ing the turned part, an ordinary spring caliper 
may be used, but a micrometer caliper is recom- 
mended, for it immediately shows the operator 
how much material is left over the finished di- 

Drilling and Tapping Brackets 

3. DRILLING. We shall here describe the 
method of drilling and tapping the cored end 
of the four brackets for the %" set screws, but 
we shall have to postpone this operation until 
the three brackets are turned and bored com- 
plete. This drilling must be the last opera- 
tion, for the reason it removes the center. 

To drill the %" hole in the end of bracket, 
place the bracket in a Chuck, (see Figure "D"). 

The machined part of this bracket should run 
true when the chuck revolves. Adjust the jaws 
of the chuck accordingly, until the bracket does 
run true. Place a Standard Drill Chuck in the 
tail stock of the lathe. With a 5/16" Drill in 
the chuck, start the lathe and drill the hole. 

4. TAPPING. Remove the bracket from the 
chuck, and fasten it upright in a vise. Select 
a %", 16-thread, right-hand U. S. Standard 
Taper Tap, and with a hand tap wrench, tap 
the hole. Be sure to keep the tap straight, 
or parallel to the axis of the bracket. Use a 
few drops of oil on the tap thread. Remove 
the taper tap and follow with a plug tap. 

[ Sixteen ] 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Rest Bracket L 

Job No. 8. Part No. 88. ]>r»win8r No. 183. 

1. Machine Job No. 3 in the same manner as 
Jobs No. 1 and No. 2, as the instructions ap- 
plying to Jobs No. 1 and No. 2 will also apply 
to Job No. 3, for it is similar, except that the 
shank of shaft in Job No. 3 is longer than 
either of the other two. 

2. When machining a job on centers, the tail 
stock center should be oiled carefully. This 
center has been hardened and tempered, so the 
job revolving on this hard center, requires lu- 

Boring the Brackets 

3. BORING THE HOLE. We describe here- 
with the method of boring the %-inch hole in 
the brackets of Jobs No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3. 
This hole may be bored any time after the four 
brackets are rough turned. 

Place a drill pad in the tail stock spindle, 
and a drill chuck in the head spindle. Use a 
23/32" drill in the chuck. The bracket to be 
drilled should be held in position as shown in 
drawing. Figure **Z'* herewith. Note there is 
a small piece of %" board between the bracket 
and the drill pad. The reason is so that when 
the drill passes through the bracket, it will 
finish in the wood, not in the drill pad. 

The drill should revolve slowly. Operate the 
feed by hand wheel of tail stock, and feed 
slowly, especially when the drill reaches within 

1/16" of the end of the hole. It is not neces- 
sary to hold the bracket by hand while being 
drilled, but to let the end of bracket rest on 
top of compound rest, as shown in drawing 
Figure "Z." 

When the 23/32" hole is drilled in all four 
brackets, remove the drill and replace it with 
a %" Standard Reamer. The reaming opera- 
tion is almost similar to that of the drilling, 
except that the reamer should revolve slower 
and the work should be fed to the reamer more 
slowly than in drilling. 

Another, but a more difficult way to do this 
job, would be to clamp the bracket to the face 
plate, and machine with a boring tool. 

[ Eighteen ] 


[ Nineteen ] 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the T Rest 

Job No. 4. Part No. 34. Drawing No. 134. 

1. CENTERING. To locate the centers on 
Job No. 4, see drawing Figure "M," page 6. 

2. DRIVING. Owing to the construction of 
the "T" Rest, we cannot drive it with either the 
common lathe dog or the clamp dog, so it is 
necessary to attach a stud to the face plate, as 
per drawing herewith. This stud is simply a 
short piece of steel, about i^" diameter, 3" 
long, threaded on one end for the distance of 
2". By using two standard nuts, this stud can 
be clamped firmly to the face plate (an ordi- 
nary machine bolt, ^x3", will serve). Note 
this stud should not extend any farther than 
the part of the casting which it drives. The 
reason is so the revolving stud will not inter- 
fere with the carriage of the lathe during the 
turning operation. 

3. FACING. The shaft end of the "T" Rest 
only is to be faced. 

4. TURNING. With the "T" Rest on centers, 
place a diamond point tool in the tool post, and 
take a light turning chip the entire length of 
the round part or shaft of the "T'* Rest. Caliper 
for parallel turning. Then take a second chip, 
but do not finish any closer than 1/32" to the 
%" dimension, because the shaft of this "T" Rest 

should not be finished until the hole is bored 
in the "T" Rest Bracket, Part No. 35, or Job 
No. 1. 

LH. S 







There are several dimensions shown in "T" 
Rest Bracket, Job No. 4, that are not required 
for machining. Most of these dimensions are 
to be followed only for making the pattern for 
the "T" Rest. 

Tie with Belt Lace 

When driving a job on centers by a stud bolt- 
ed to the face plate instead of a common lathe 
dog, the job should be tied to this stud with a 
piece of belt, lacing. This is especially true 
when filing or polishing a piece that is revolving 
at a high speed on centers. 

A good lathe hand can Puiii7<^Uy/ 


[ Twenty ] 

iJoh /Vo. 4. 
Materiat - Cast Iron 
No, Pieces Required- 1 , 

Scate Work to figures. 


[ Twenty-one ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Angle Rest 

Job No. 5. Part No. 86. Drawing No. 136. 

1. CENTERING. To center Job No. 5, fol- 
low instructions shown in Job No. 4. 

2. DRIVING. For driving Job No. 5, follow 
Instructions described in Job No. 4. 

It will be noticed in Jobs No. 4 and No. 5, 
they are faced only on the shaft end. 

Do not take a finishing cut on Job No. 5, but 
allow 1/32" stock for finishing at a later cut, 
after bracket in which angle rest fits is bored. 

Turning Diameter to Fit a Machined Hole or Gauge 

In turning a round shaft to fit a cylinder or 
hole, we should first learn what kind of a fit is 
required. There is a tight, driving fit, such as 
is required for an arbor. There is a pressing 
fit, such as is required for an inside fiange on 
a grinder spindle, and there is a loose fit, which 
is the one we require on jobs No. 1, No. 2, No. 
3, No. 4 and No. 5. 

We cannot fit the round end or shank of 
the bracket to the hole in the rests. Jobs No. 
1, No. 2 and No. 3, until these holes have been 
machined. We therefore leave the round part 
or shank of the bracket about 1/32" larger in 
diameter, until we are ready to make the fit. 

When the holes are bored, caliper the exact 
diameter of the hole. Or, better still, select an 
arbor which will fit the round hole. Then cali- 
per the arbor at a point where it fits the hole. 
This will be the exact size of the shanks of the 
Angle Rest, T Rest and Brackets. 

When ready to make the fit, place the job 
on centers and take a light chip, not extending 
over %" from the end of bracket. Caliper the 
reduced diameter carefully, and also try it in 
the hole for which it is to be fitted. If you can 
enter the shaft 1/16" into the hole, by pres- 
sure, then you can finish the chip. 

Change the belt, so the spindle will run at 
highest speed, put a couple drops of oil on the 
tail center, and with a file, smooth the end of 
the bracket for a distance of about 1". Then 
remove the bracket from centers, and try it in 
the hole. It should be a nice, twisting fit, not 
too loose, but just so it will slip through nicely 
without shaking. 

Care must be taken to see that the hole into 
which the bracket fits is true. We assume, of 
course, this has been finished with a reamer. 
If so, it is finished to size, without any burrs ^ 
or rough edges. ^,^,,.,..^^, ^y — ^ ^ _^-.C 

[ Twenty- two ] 

Joh No.S. 

M^fert'a/'Ccisf Iron 
No. R/ec€3 Re^uireo/ -/ 

DfiAW/NO A/oJ36 PART /Vo. 36 


Scafe Work to f/^urea 


[ Twenty-three 1 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Rough Turning the Spindle 

Job. No. 6. Part No. 31. Drawing No. 131. 

1. MATERIAL. Secure a piece of mild steel, 
about 1%" diameter, 13^" long, and machine 
so that it will finish to the dimensions indicated 
in drawing. 

Before centering, see that the shaft is 
straight. If it is bent or twisted in any way, 
straighten it. After you have located the cen- 
ter marks, place the shaft on centers and re- 
volve it by hand. When it is running as nearly 
true as possible, then drill center holes. 

2. CENTERING. For centering, follow in- 
structions in Job No. 1, except that in centering 
a piece of steel, oil should be used on the center 

3. TURNING. Select a common dog of suit- 
able size. Face both ends of shaft, then with a 
diamond point tool take a rough turning cut 
on the diameter, allowing the tool to cut with- 
in about 3" of the dog. Then transpose the 
dog and shaft, run the tool back, and complete 
the roughing cut on the opposite end. 

In turning a long shaft, it is very necessary 
that the machined or turned part is parallel. 
This should be tested carefully, and if any 
taper is indicated, tail stock should be adjusted 
and a light chip taken, until the piece is ex- 
actly parallel. 

It is necessary that the student finish Job 
No. 6 exactly to the dimensions shown in draw- 
ing so he may become familiar in working ac- 
curately to dimensions. 

Job No. 6 is now machined in the rough, and 
is to be further machined as the grinder 
spindle, as shown in Jobs No. 7, No. 8 and No. 
9. Note the depth of the centers shown In 
drawing, and see that your centers conform to 
these dimensions. 

In turning a piece of steel, it will be noticed 
that the chips curl more, and that the tool be- 
comes heated more, than in turning cast iron; 
therefore, a little slower speed should be used, 
and the turning tool should be watched more 
carefully, to see that it does not dull. 

Before machining a piece on centers in the 
lathe, see that the centers line up, as per cut 
herewith. For further description see page 42, 
book "How to Run a Lathe." '-■-»■— -j ^-^ - 



[ Twenty-four ] 


Joh No, 6 

M af trial - Mild Steel. 

No. Pieces Required - 1 

DHAWING No./3f \F^RT No. 31 

Scale Work to figure: 


' Twentv-flve 1 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Finish Turning the Spindle 

Job No. 7. Part No. 31. Drawing No. 181-A 

1. MATERIAL. For Job. No. 7 use the shaft 
that has been machined in Job No. 6. 

Take a turning chip that will reduce the di- 
ameter within 1/32" over size, the entire length 
of spindle. The large diameter of this spindle 
is to be fitted to spindle pulley, but we cannot 
do this fitting until the spindle pulley is ma- 

reduce a shaft in diameter at one or more 
places, we use a cutting-off tool to locate the 
shoulder. (See illustration Figure "T," page 
52.) Fasten the cutting-oflf tool in the tool 
post. Be sure to see that the tool has clearance 
on both sides. Move the cutting-off tool until 
the farther side is 3%" from the end of shaft, 
that is, within 1/16" of the finished length. 
Now start the lathe, and with a spring caliper 
in the right hand, and left hand feeding the 
cutting-off tool forward, take a light chip, using 
oil on the cutting edge of the tool. Feed care- 
fully until the proper diameter is reached, 
which will be indicated by the caliper. This 
diameter should be about 1/32" larger than the 
finished size. Then withdraw the tool, trans- 
pose the driving dog and shaft, and repeat the 
shoulder operation on the other end of shaft. 
Locate the two inside shoulders in the same 


[ Twenty- 

3. TURNING. With a Turning Tool, reduce 
each end of the shaft to about 1/64" larger in 
diameter than the dimensions called for. Then 
take a chip over the center of the grinder shaft, re- 
ducing diameter to gis" larger than drawing calls for. 

FLANGE DIAMETER. Note that the length of 
thread is IW from either end of spindle, but that 
the %" diameter extends 2^^" from the end. 
This dimension includes the length of thread, plus 
thickness of emery wheel and outside fiange. The 
diameter .752" for press fit are to accommodate 
the inside flanges, which should fit fairly tight on 
the shoulder. This diameter we cannot machine to 

a finish until inside fianges are bored. (See Job ' 
No. 12, page 37.) The two bearings are 1" in diame- 
ter and 2^" long. These can be finished to size at 
any time. The 1%" diameter is for the pulley. This 
diameter should not be finished until the pulley 
has been bored. (See Pulley Job No. 10, page 32.) 

5. As we cannot finish the press fit for the inside 
fianges, nor the diameter where pulley fits, until 
the fianges and pulley are machined, we can go 
ahead with the thread cutting. If the student has 
had no experience in thread cutting, we suggest 
that the instructor secure a number of pieces of 
%" shafting about 6" long, and have each student 
practice cutting short threads on one of the shafts T 
before he attempts cutting th^lhy-^^^pn^^tPtedW^lC 

%/oh No. 7 

MmtcrimI "Mild Steel. 

No. Pieces Hequired - 1 

[ Twenty-aeven ] 

DMWINQ NeJ3hA\P^RT No. 3/ 


r ^jg'^ir/yj'i, ^orH to tiguree. 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Threading the Spindle 

Job No. 8. Part No. 81. Drawingr No. 131-B. 

1. MATERIAL. For Job No. 8 we use the 
aft machined in Job No. 7. Cut a %" x 10 

S. Standard Thread, right-hand, on one end. 

2. GEARING LATHE. For thread cutting 
e pages 34 and 35 of Lathe Book for selecting 
ars to secure the desired pitch. Also see Rule, 
age 39) of Lathe Book: "Gearing Any Engine 
ithe for Screw Cutting.*' 

ig the thread tool, see page 36 of Lathe Book, 
e recommend a tool similar to the Patent 
ireading Tool, shown on page 27 of Lathe Book. 

4. LENGTH OF THREAD. The length of 
read to be cut, as shown in drawing, is 1%". 
easure this distance from the end of the 
aft, and make a prick punch mark. Then, 
ith a 3/32" drill, drill a hole %" deep, using 
is prick punch mark as a center. Attach a 
mmon lathe dog to the grinder spindle, and 
ace it on the centers. Be sure to put oil 
I your tail center, and clamp the tail spindle. 
>w set the threading tool, with the point op- 
►site center of the hole you have just drilled, 
liere the thread terminates. Then with a 
nter gauge, line the tool up properly as on 
,ge 36 of Lathe Book, drawing Figure 15. 
le height of the cutting edge of the thread- 
g tool should be even with the axis or point 

[ Twentj'-elgrht ] 

of the lathe center. Fasten the thread-cutting 
stop to the saddle, as explained on page 36 of 
Lathe Book. Clamp the half nuts on the lead 
screw, reverse the countershaft. This will run 
the carriage back until the thread cutting tool 
reaches about %" beyond the end of the grinder 

5. FIRST CHIP. Before taking the first 
chip, study page 37 of Lathe Book. See that 
the lathe dog is fastened securely to the grinder 
spindle, and that the threading tool is fastened; 
then proceed with the first chip, allowing the 
tool to just merely scratch the spindle. Stop 
the lathe before the tool reaches the hole, 
showing the end of cut. This hole was drilled 
so as to allow the tool to finish the end of each 
chip. Then finish the chip by turning the 
spindle cone slowly forward, by pulling on the 
belt by hand. 

6. In removing a threaded piece from the 
lathe for testing the thread, never detach the 
dog from this piece. Do not even change the 
position of the dog. Always mark the slot in 
the face plate in which the dog was placed, 
while the thread is being cut. Replace the tail 
of the dog in the same slot, when you put the 
job back on centers to renew the thread cut- 
ting. For testing thread, see instruction^ in 

^''^^- Jigitized by Google 



I'-fO Threads KH. US.S. 

for Case Hardened Hexafpn Nuf Ho. 45 

Jpb No. 8 

Materfal "Mitd Steel. 

Ne, Pieces Hequired - 1 

DHf^WINa NoJ3hB\FAnT No. 31 


9cale Work to figures, 


[ Twenty-flve ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Threading the Spindle 

Job No. 9. Part No. 31. Drawing: No. 131-C. 

1. MATERIAL. For Job No. 9 we use the 
spindle machined in Job No. 8. We are to cut 
a %"xlO U. S. Standard Thread, left hand, on 
the other end of spindle. For cutting this 
thread, we use the same arrangement of gear- 
ing as we did for cutting the thread in Job No. 8. 

not let the screw of the dog come in contact 
with the thread, but select an old nut %"xlO 
right hand thread. With a hand hack saw, split 
one side of the nut through into the hole, and 
half way into the other side. Then place this 
nut on the threaded end of shaft and fasten 
securely with a clamp dog. In this manner we 
can drive the threaded shaft without injuring 
the thread. 

8. THREAD TOOL. Use the same thread 
tool and set in the same manner as you did in 
Job No. 8. 

4. LENGTH OF THREAD. Drill a hole 
about 3/16" in diameter, and about 3/16" deep, 
1%" from the end of the spindle. This hole 
will be the starting point of each chip in cut- 
ting the left hand thread. Adjust the reverse 
lever in the head stock, so that when the split 
nut is clamped on the lead screw and the ship- 
per rod is thrown forward toward the head end 
of the lathe, the spindle cone of lathe will re- 

volve, the top of the cone rotating in the di- 
rection of the operator. Then the carriage 
should feed from left to right. 

5. CUTTING THE THREAD. Set your thread 
tool and use the adjustable stop exactly as you 
did in Job No, 8, and proceed with the first 
chip. The carriage will now move to the right 
instead of the left, and when the thread tool 
reaches a point at least %" beyond the end of 
spindle, reverse the shipper rod. This will re- 
verse the direction of travel of the carriage un- 
til the thread tool reaches the hole or starting 
point. Then arrange for depth of second chip. 
Start in carefully, taking a light chip. Con- 
tinue this operation until the thread is finished. 
Use plenty of oil on the thread tool; lard oil 
is preferred. 

6. TESTING THE THREAD. Use the nut 
intended for the threaded part as a gauge. 
When you think the thread about finished, re- 
move the spindle from centers, and try the nut 
on thread. Do not strain the thread, the nut 
should go on half of its depth with very little 
pressure. Examine the thread after you re- 
move the nut, to see if the thread has a per- 
fect bearing. 

When the thread is cut on both ends of the 
spindle chamfer off the ends as shown in drawing. 

[ Thirty ] 

Job Mo. 9 

Material 'Mild Sttal, 

No. Places Hatfuirad - I 

DHHWttiG No.l3hC\P/]BT No. 3 I 


S caU Wor/c io fl^urta. 


[ Thirty-one ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Spindle Pulley 

Job No. 10. Part No. 32. Drawing: No. 132. 

L. JOB. A east iron pulley is to be ma- 
ned to the dimensions as shown on drawing. 
iw Universal Geared Scroll Chuck to the 
idle nose of lathe, and fasten the casting in 
chuck. (See explanation drawing Fig. K, 
e 54.) 

I, FACING. Use a round nose tool, and face 
end of pulley to the depth of about 1/16" 
ow scale. 

k CENTERING. Place a centering tool in 
tool post, and locate the center of the pul- 
, adjusting the tool so that it is approxi- 
tely at the center. Take a light chip, mov- 
the tool so that when it begins to cut, it 
I show the exact center, and will machine a 
ntersunk hole about %" deep. The hole 
this pulley could have been cored but we 
the casting solid, for practice. 
K DRILLING. Use a 1" Straight Shank 
ist Drill, held by a drill chuck in tail 
idle. Drill a hole through the pulley, feed- 
by hand wheel of tailstock. 
I. BORING. With a boring tool, take a chip 
ut 1/32" through the pulley, or deep enough 
true up the hole. Follow with another fin- 
ing chip about 1/64" deep. Then follow 
h a reamer, reaming the hole to size. It 

[ Thirty-two ] 

should be borne in mind that this pulley is to 
fit the spindle. (See Job No. 9.) 

7. FINISH ON ARBOR. Remove the pulley 
from the chuck, and press it on to a 1^" arbor; 
the arbor entering the hole at the machined end 
of pulley. Place a drop of oil or grease on 
the arbor, and spread it thoroughly with the 
hand, so when the pulley is machined, the ar- 
bor may be pressed out easily. , Never place a 
steel arbor into a cast iron piece, unless either 
the hole or the arbor has been oiled slightly, 
because if it has not been lubricated, the pul- 
ley is liable to cut when driving it off the ar- 

8. Attach a dog and place the job on cen- 
ters. (See drawing Figure "V," page 53, Pul- 
ley on Arbor.) Take a roughing cut over the 
diameter of pulley, and face up both ends to 
the proper dimensions. 

9. TURNING TAPER. Set the tailstock off 
center, to get the required taper or crown of 
pulley. (See page 42 of Lathe Book.) After 
required taper is found, take a chip off of one 
end. Then remove the dog, and place it on 
the opposite end of the arbor. Place the job 
back on centers, and take a chip on this end. 
Repeat the operation until the pulley i^ ma- 
chined to the proper dimensions. C^OOCjIp 

T^p driJi 4" 

Tap ^'t6 Threads H.H. U.S. 5. 

No, AS 

Job No. JO 
Mater/a/' Cast Iron. 
Ho, Pieces Required - ) 

DRf\\NING NoJ3Z\ PAHT No 3^ 


Scale \Nork to figures. 


[ Thirty-three ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Outside Flanges 

Job No. 11. Part No. 30. Drawfaiff No. 180. 

1. Mount a 6", 3-jaw Universal Geared 
Scroll Chuck on the lathe. Fasten the flange 
casting in chuck, gripping it by the small 
shoulder. (See illustration Figure **S," page 
53.) Be sure to see that the flange runs true, 
not only on the outside diameter, but the hole 
should also run true. If the hole is not con- 
centric with the outside diameter of the flange, 
then measure the amount of stock to be re- 
moved from hole, and the amount of stock 
from the outside diameter of the flange, and 
adjust the chuck so that both the hole and out- 
side diameter can be machined true in the same 

When the flange runs true in the chuck, 
with a round nose tool, take a roughing chip 
on face of flange; then a flnishing chip. Then 
a slight roughing chip on large diameter of 
flange, and a flnishing chip. Adjust round nose 
tool and take a recessing chip on face of flange. 
(See Figure "S," page 53, Tool ''B.") Place 
a boring tool in the tool post (see Tool "C") and 
take a roughing chip through hole; then a fin- 
ishing chip, until within 1/64" of size. Then 
finish with a %'' Standard Reamer. 

fiange from the chuck, and press it tightly on 
a %" arbor. Attach a dog to the arbor, and 

[ Thirty. 

place the job on centers. Set the compound 
rest on an angle of 13-degrees. (See illustra- 
tion Figure "H," page 53.) Use a tool having 
a very small round nose, and take a roughing 
chip on the angle part of fiange; then a rough- 
ing chip on the diameter of fiange and hub; 
then a flnishing chip on both flange and hub. 
With a side tool, face the small hub and in- 
side of fiange. 

job to remain on centers, and release the tail 
stock center slightly, so the arbor will run 
perfectly free. Put a drop of oil on the tail 
center point. Run the lathe spindle at next to 
the highest speed, and with a mill file, smooth 
up carefully the outside diameter, the angle 
surface, and the small hub of flange. You 
may round the corners slightly, but not the 
corner of the large diameter of the face of 

To polish a piece of cast iron in the lathe, 
take a strip of emery cloth about the width of 
a flle, put a few drops of oil on the cloth. 
Then holding the cloth against the flle, polish 
the flange while it is revolving. Keep plenty 
of oil on the emery cloth. This will produce 
a flne, polished surface, and the oil will pre- 
vent rusting. .^ ^^ 2 

four ] 

Job No. 11 
MatTtal- Ca§t Iron 
No. Pitceo Required - Z 


Scale WgrA to ti^uf 


[ Thirty-flve ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Inside Flanges 

Job No. n. Part No. 38. Drawing: No. 138. 

For machining Job No. 12 follow instructions 
given in Job No. 11, except that the flange 
angle on Job No. 12 is 10 degrees, while Job 
No. 11 was 13 degrees. Also note that Job 
No. 12 has a grooved hub, while the hub on 
Job No. 11 was plain. 

When the flange has been machined and is 
still on arbor, with a 3/16" round nose tool, 
machine a groove 3/16" wide and about 3/32" 
deep, in the center of hub, as shown in draw- 
ing. The object of this groove is to prevent 
the oil from the bearings from running up on 
the flange, while the emery wheel is in mo- 
tion. File and polish the flange as described 
in Job No. 11. 

After a job has been bored in a chuck, and 
then placed on an arbor, all surfaces should 
again be machined if an accurate job is re- 
quired. V - 

The inside flanges for the grinder spindle 
should fit up close to the shoulders of spindle, 
so that when assembled oh the spindle and 
placed in the grinder head, there should be a 
slight play between the hubs of the two flanges 
and the outer ends of bearings on head; that 
is, there should be a visible slight end motion, 
not exceeding 1/64". 

Removing a Job from Arbor 

In removing a job from the arbor, or driv- 
ing the arbor out of the job, care should be 
taken to see that the arbor is driven out of 
the job from the small end, as one end of all 
arbors or mandrels is smaller than the other 
end. The size of the mandrel is usually marked 
on the large end. 

In driving a mandrel into or out of a pulley, 
be careful not to batter or jamb the end of the 
arbor, because if the center 
hole or outside diameter of 
the arbor is battered, then 
the arbor will not run true, 
and if the arbor does not 
run absolutely true, you 
cannot machine an accurate 
job on it. A babbitt ham- 
mer or a wooden mallet 
would best sefve as a driver. 
A small cast iron anvil, 
similar to that shown in Fig- 
ure *'W" herewith, would 
make an excellent anvil for 
arbor work, and it will also 
be found useful for other 
work in the machine shop. 

[ Thirty-six ] 

Job No,lZ 
Maftriat-Casi Iron, 
No. Pieces Refuired - Z 


Scale \Nork to /i^ure$* 


[ Thirty-seven ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Head Caps 

Job No. 18. Part No. 30. Drawinip No. 130. 

1. Drawings on page 39 show the grinder 
head caps. 

a. Clean the casting and remove all sand 
and grit. 

3. The six anchor holes "B*' should be drilled 
according to drawing, so that when the babbitt 
is poured, it enters these holes, and there forms 
an anchor to hold the babbitt in the cap. Drill 
the six anchor holes in each cap, also six simi- 
lar anchor holes for holding the babbitt for 
each bearing in the grinder head. 

4. Locate the position of the cap screw holes 
for attaching caps to grinder head. Note that the 
centers of these holes are 2%" apart. Chalk 
the surface where the holes 

are to be drilled. Rub this 
chalked surface with the 
fingers, and with the di- 
viders locate the centers of 
the boss of each hole. Make 
a prick punch mark at each 
center, and scribe a %" cir- 
cle. Make six prick punch 
marks on the circumference 
of each circle, (see drawing Fig. "U"). Next 
make a deep center punch mark on the center 
of each circle. The center distance should be 

r/^. u 

5. Use SL %" drill in the chuck in head spin- 
dle, and a drill pad in the tail stock. Let the 
point of the drill enter about 1/16'' in each 
circle. See if the hole is going to be concen- 
tric with the circular lay-out. If it is not, 
then with a prick punch drive the center of the 
hole in the proper direction in order to be con- 
centric. Remove a little more stock with the 
drill, and test again. When the drill hole is 
concentric with the lay-out, drill both holes. 
Now with a counterbore, having a %" pilot, re- 
move 1/32" stock, so that the head of the cap 
screw will rest on a machined surface. 

6. Locate the hole in the top of cap for oil 
cup. This hole should be in about the center 
of the boss. Use a 17/64" drill. 

Do not tap the oil hole at this time, because 
it is through this hole that the babbitt is 
poured. After babbitt is poured, then redrill 
this hole, removing the babbitt, and tap for 
oil cup. 

7. Some of the holes drilled in grinder and 
cap could perhaps be done to better advantage 
on a drill press. Our instructions are to drill 
these parts in the lathe, assuming that there p 
is no drill press in the shop equipmelrr. "" ^^--V 

[ Thirty-eight ] 

Drill J dia. for 
Babbitt vent. 

Xn. r-Tap Drill ^Tafi A'-JZ Thds k* ^^T^ 
i n.H, a6.S./or offer No. SO. , 

I Drill Z//o/cs. 

3 / 
Drill 6 holes jQclia,gdeep 

for anchorirta babbitt. 

Job No. 13 
Material' Cast Iron* 
No. Pieces Tfetiuired - Z 

DRAi^tNa No. 130 \PAnT No. 30 


Scale WcrK to figures. 


[ Thirty-nine ] 

South Bend Lathe Works^ South Bend, Indiana 

Machining the Head 

Job No. 14. Part No. 29. Drawing: No. 129. 

1. The drawing on page 41 shows three 
ews of the grinder head casting, also an en- 
rged view of one of the boxes, or bearings. 

2. Clean the casting thoroughly. Remove all 
ind, gates and sprues, inside as well as out- 

3. To drill the necessary holes in the grinder 
3ad, for lag screws to hold the grinder to the 
mch, and holes for safety guards, make a jig 
' wood, similar to that shown in drawing Fig- 
•e **P," page 52. This jig should be about 
2" long. Let it rest on two strips of wood, 
ich about 2 feet long, so they will rest on the 
ont and rear of lathe saddle. 

4. The caps machined in Job No. 13 should 
)w be fitted to the grinder head. Chalk the 
p of the grinder head where the holes are to 
J drilled for cap screws. Hold or clamp the 
p firmly to the head, and with a scratch-awl 
ark through the holes in cap and locate the 
>sition of the holes on grinder head. When 
le hole has been located for each cap, remove 
e caps, lay out these holes with six prick 
inch marks on the circle, find the center of the 
rcle, as per drawing page 38, and make a 
sep punch mark at this center. Then mark 
e right-hand cap and right-hand box with a prick 
inch, so you can replace cap on its own bear- 

ing each time. Also make two center punch 
marks on the front on the other cap and box. 

5. Use a 5/16" drill. Drill only one hole in 
each bearing. Tap the holes and fasten each 
cap with* one screw. Then with a %" drill, 
using the hole in the cap as a jig, spot the other 
hole for each cap in the grinder head, letting 
the point of the drill enter the casting only 
about 1/16". Now remove both caps, and with 
a 5/16" drill, finish both holes. Tap both holes 
and attach both caps. 

6. When the caps are attached, see that they 
fit nicely on the grinder head. They should 
not lap over, neither on the sides nor ends. If 
they do, remove the lap with a file. 

7. If more than one grinder at a time is being 
made, nuriiber each cap and each bearing in 
serial, so you can attach each cap to its own 

8. Locate the position of holes through which 
grinder is clamped to the bench, and drill them, 
(see drawing Fig. P, page 52). The position 
of the holes for safety guards can not be lo- 
cated until grinder is complete and the emery 
wheels attached. Then place the safety guards 
in position, so they fit properly over the emery^-^T^^ 

' ■ • €^^ 

wheels, and mark through the slots of the bas^!: 

[ Forty ] 


W ^\-M 

'S'T'T-^, J^ 

~fn — f" I 



for 4 m hH CapSck/l La^^ 47 , ^ - . 

1 8 


r Forty-one 1 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Babbitting the Bearings 

Job No. 16. Part No. Special. 

Job No. 16 drawing shows the small parts 
at we use in the babbitting jig, which is de- 
ribed in Job No. 17. 

Make four shims of cardboard, 1/32" thick. 
>ee drawing on opposite page.) One of these 
lims is placed under each side of each cap to 
low for wear, because after two or three 
jars, when the spindle bearings wear, these 
lims are removed and thinner shims are in- 
srted to take up the wear. The shims as shown 
> not indicate the holes for the screws. This 

oecause we first use these shims as part of 
le babbitting jig, and afterward we cut the 
)le for the screw and use the shims in the 

One of these shims shows an opening on one 
de, through which the babbitt is poured, as 
:plained later. 

The four cast iron collars shown are bored 
1" and faced on one end. They are also 

cessed 1/32" deep, 1 7/16" diameter. The ob- 
ct of this recess is that when babbitt is 
>ured, it will fill into this space, which will 
low it to project 1/32" beyond the bearing. 

The 1" cold rolled shaft, shown in drawing 

what we call the babbitting bar. This shaft 

ould be straight and true. It should be 1" 

diameter, not .001" over or .002" less. 

In placing this shaft in the babbitting jig, 
the center of shaft should be about 1/64" high- 
er than the top of the bearing of grinder head. 
The reason is that the shim is 1/32" thick, 
therefore when the grinder spindle is fitted to 
the bearing, the center or axis of the spindle 
will be in line with the center of the shim. 

Scraping the Boxes 

After the bearings in grinder head have been 
babbitted, the bearings of the spindle being fin- 
ished, place some red lead on the spindle bear- 
ings, and put the spindle in the grinder head; 
revolving it slowly by hand. This will show the 
high spots. Then with a scraper, using a half 
round file, ground smooth and with a cutting 
edge, scrape the high spots until the spindle has 
a thorough bearing. 

This scraping should be done before the 
grinder caps are babbitted. After the grinder 
caps are babbitted, they should be tested and 
scraped in the same manner. 

In babbitting a large bearing, we usually 
paint the babbitting shaft with graphite, in 
paste form, but the bearings of this grinder are 
small, and will not need a coat of graphite. ^ 

[ Forty-two ] 


Tap clrift ^-Tap^ '16 Th'tis 
for Heeidleas Set Screw. 

[ Forty-three ] 

South Bend Lat he Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Babbitting the Bearings 

Job No. 17. Babbittinsr Ji?. 

Make a wood frame, as shown on opposite 
rawing Figure "X." Make it large enough so that 
be grinder frame can be easily placed inside. 

Place the grinder head in the wooden frame 
nd place babbitting shaft on the V ways. Shim 
p under grinder head with cardboard shims 
BB," until the grinder bearings are concen- 
ric and parallel to the babbitting shaft. The 
3P of the grinder bearing should be 1/64" 
elow the center of the babbitting shaft. Now 
lamp the grinder head to the wood frame, 
leasure again to see that the bearing space of 
tie grinder head is concentric and parallel with 
be shaft at both ends. Remove the shaft and 
lace on it the four adjustable collars, setting 
ach collar as close up to the bearings as possi- 
le. The dimensions are shown on drawing. Now 
^ith a piece of wood, plug up the four cap screw 
oles on grinder head. Place the four cardboard 
liims on top of bearings, so they will fit tight up 
gainst the shaft and inside both collars. Fasten 
ach shim to the wood plug with a tack: With a 
iece of clay or putty, make a ringed dam, "E," 
s shown, between the ends of bearings and collars, 
hese dams are merely to prevent the babbitt 
'om running out of the mould. 

If the babbitt has a tendency to run out of 
le mould at any point, simply make a dam to 

prevent it. Make another dam "F" on the top 
of shim. (See Figure "X" also Plan View.) 
This dam laps over onto the shaft. It is through 
this dam, through the hole "G" that the bab- 
bitt is poured to fill the bottom bearing. 

Before pouring the mould see that the babbitt 
is hot, not red hot, but hot enough to singe or 
scorch a pine stick. Make a test by immersing the 
stick into the molten babbitt. There are a number of 
small anchor holes in the bearings of the mould, 
and if the metal is of the right temperature, it will 
fiow readily and fill every crevice and anchor in the 
mould. If the babbitt does not fill the mould per- 
fectly, the babbitt was not hot enough. In this case 
remove the babbitt and pour again. Do not attempt 
to pour both boxes with one ladle of babbitt as the 
metal cools quickly. Get a fresh supply in ladle 
for each box. 

When both lower boxes have been babbitted, 
place new shims on all the bearings and attach the 
caps, screwing them down tight on the shims. Dam 
up between the ends of caps and collars. (See Fig- 
ure "Y.") Now make a center dam "N" over this 
hole. When both caps are babbitted, remove the 
dam, placing a dog on the end of the babbitting 
shaft. Loosen the set screws in each collar and re- 
move the shaft by a pulling, twisting moyement. ^ 
Now trim up the ends of each box. . , ( --OOCjIp 

For scraping boxes, see page''4^^ "V ^^ V^^^*^^ 

[ Forty-four ] 

JOB No. 17 


^— ^.i' ■/ '..-- 

P/o/j V/euj rig. X 

Enlarged Section of F^ 

Plan View Fi^, Y 

M K L J M M K N M 

niniti.oHJhv.Ofl^iylp \^ 

[ Forty-flve ] 

S outh Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Drilling the Head 

Job No. 15. Part No. 80. 

TS. Place the grinder head on two wooden 
leats on top of saddle, one end of the cored 
ole on the head center and the other end on 
le tail center of lathe, thus lining up the cored 
ole, shim up under the grinder head, if neces- 
iry. Clamp grinder head to saddle if you 
ish. Now remove head center, and with a 
V32" drill in chuck (see drawing), start drill- 
ig. The drill should revolve slowly. With the 
[ght hand feeding by hand wheel of tail stock 
nd the left hand operating the carriage wheel 
Qd the tail center still in cored hole, drill 
iree-quarter way through the casting. Now 
3place the tail center with a drill pad, a piece 
f wood between drill p8i,d and grinder, finish 
rilling the hole. Then size the hole with a 
i" standard reamer. Machine the other hole 
I the same way. 

The two small side holes, through which set 
jrews pass to fasten the bracket, may be drilled 
Y using the same cleats as for drilling the 
racket holes. 

It will not be necessary, in drilling these 
3les, to clamp the casting to the lathe carriage, 
imply turn the grinder head around, place a 
/1 6" drill in the chuck, lay out the position 
! the hole in the end of boss on casting, an'd 
rill through into the bracket hole, using the 

DmLUNB GKtf*D£R HEAD -fAUT Na 90. 

tail stock wheel to feed, holding the grinder 
casting with the left hand. When the hole is 
drilled, reverse position of the grinder casting, 
and drill a similar hole in the opposite end of 

Now tap the holes with a %", 16-thread, 
right hand U. S. Standard Tap, running through 
first with a taper tap, and finishing with a plug 
tap, using a hand tap wrench. 

For castings and material in the rough, 
also supplies, etc., for building the 8-inch 
Bench Emery Grinder, see page 49. f^ f\r\ 


[ Forty-six ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Safety Guards for Emery Wheels 

The drawing herewith shows safety guards 
for guarding the emery wheels. These guards 
are made of malleable or cast iron. Malleable 
iron is recommended. 

The guards are used in pairs, right and left. 
There is no difference in the de- 
sign or the construction, except 
in the base. When making the 
pattern, disconnect the pattern 
at the base, using a right and 

left base, so that one large pattern will serve for 
the hoods. 

There is no machine work done on these 
guards. All that is necessary is to sand and 
paint them. 


1— S O U N D wheels before 
MOUNTING to detect possi- 

2 — Never FORCE wheels on 

3 — Use RELIEVED flanges 
where possible. 

tightening of flanges. 

5 — Keep rest CLOSE to wheel. 

6 — -Keep wheels TRUE. 

7— Keep BEARINGS adjusted. 

8 — Have Grinder on SOLID 

Left Guard. 

Mmterioi - Cuat Iron. 

No. Phoos no^irod - One of etch R. MiidL. 

m^ht Guard. 

VRfWNING No. 140 \P/inT No. 40 1-41 


Scale Work to figures. 


[ Forty-seven ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Painting and Assembling the Grinder 

The grinder should be painted after all ma- 
chine work has been done. The castings haV« 
already been cleaned of all sand, sprues, etc., 
before machining. 

Before applying a coat of paint, be sure that 
all trace of oil and grease has been removed 
from the grinder head. Then apply a coat of 
paint, good quality, any color will serve. This 
is what we call the priming coat. 

After the priming coat is dry, apply a coat 
of iron filler. 

This filler comes prepared in a form something 
similar to a soft, wet clay. The filler should be 
cut with turpentine until it resembles a paste as 
thick as can be applied easily with a brush. 
Paint the entire casting with a coat of this filler, 
with the exception of the machined surfaces. 
The coat will dry in from four to ten hours, 
depending upon the drying properties of the 
filler. When dry, rub down with coarse sand- 
paper in such a manner that you sand only the 
high spots. Then apply another coat of filler. 
When this is dry, sand again. If you wish the 
machine to look unusually nice, you should ap- 
ply at least four coats of filler, and sand after 
each coat. 

After the casting has been filled, apply a 
coat of sealer. This may be an oil-proof paint, 
or an enamel. Enamel makes the best sealer, 
because it is oil-proof, and it levels evenly. The 
color may be black, dark blue, or dark green. 
When the sealer or oil-proof coat of paint is 
dry, then assemble the machine. 

For painting the bracket heads, the angle 
and T rests, follow the same instructions as 
given for painting the grinder head. 

ASSEMBLING. After the painted parts are 
dry, assemble the machine. In assembling, 
place the end of the spindle having the left- 
hand nut on the left-hand end of the frame. 
The reason is, that when the emery wheels are 
revolving, the nuts should fasten in the direc- 
tion of the rotation of the emery wheel, because 
the greater the speed, the greater the tendency 
to tighten the nuts, whereas, if the direction of 
the thread was reversed, the tendency would be 
to loosen the nuts. 

When the machine is assembled apply a fin- 
ishing coat of velvet black, preferably 
velvet shade. ^,^,.,^^^, ^ 

[ Forty-eight ] 


South Bend Lathe Works^ South Bend, Indiana 

Castings and Supplies for 8-inch Bench Emery Grinder 

For the accommodation of schools who wish 
to build the Tool Room Grinder, and are not 
in a position to make patterns or to secure the 
necessary castings, steel etc., we shall be pleased 
to supply all the parts and material in the rough. 

A large machine shop equipment is not neces- 
sary for building the 8-inch Bench Grinder. 
The entire work can be done on a 15" South 
Bend Lathe. If the school equipment includes 
a drill press, milling machine and shaper, the 
work can be done to better advantage. 

If the grinder countershaft is wanted, we 
can supply the castings and all parts in the 
rough, together with the necessary drawings 
and blue prints for the machining of these 
parts. A drawing of the countershaft may be 
seen on page 50. 

We claim no patent on this grinder. Anyone 

who wishes to make the machine in part or 

whole, has our permission. We shall be glad 
to supply them with text books. 

The work may be divided into four depart- 
ments as follows: 

DRAWING ROOM. The students may make 
a complete set of drawings, using this text 
book as a guide. 

PATTERN ROOM. A complete set of work- 
ing patterns can be made from the above 

set of cores and castings can be made up if 
the school has the necessary equipment. 

MACHINE SHOP. This text book illustrates 
and describes in detail, the machining of the 

For prices of all material, castings, etc., 
in the rough, write for special circular 
mailed free on request. Address South 
Bend Lathe Works, Grinder Dept., 428 E. 
Madison Street, South Bend, Ind. 


The 8-inch Bench Lathe described on 
pages 58-59 is also an excellent project 
for the School Machine Shop. 

[ Forty-nine J 

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South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Driving: by a Common Dog 

Drillinji: in the Lathe 




Cuttinir a Shoulder 



Drivinir by a Clamp Dog: 

[ Fifty-two ] 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Fig. S 

Chucking a Flange 

Drilling on the Diameter 

Compound Rest on an Angle 



r Fifty-three ] 

PuUey on Arbor OOCjIP 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 


r>- - ^ 

Use of an Indicator 





Machininir a Chuck Job 



A Face Plate Job 

Tapplnir In the ChuclT^ ^^ 


[ Fifty-four ] 

Showing 12—8" Grinderg Built by the Class 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Machining a Mandrel 

Job No. 27. Part Xo. 107. Drawing Xo. 207. 

1. MATERIAL. A Lathe Mandrel is usually 
ade of tool steel, so it may be hardened and 
mpered all over. However, for large man- 
els, mild steel may be used instead of criici- 
3, especially when an arbor is not excessive 
length, and where it is not subjected to 
ugh, heavy work. If carbon steel cannot be 
cured easily, we can use mild steel with good 

Select a piece of tool steel or mild steel, 7%" 
Qg. Center both ends, place on centers and 
ue both ends. Take a roughing chip over the 
tire diameter. With a facing tool on an an- 
3, recess both ends of the arbor to a depth of 
32". Let this recess extend about %" in 
imeter. The object of this recess is that in 
iving a pulley or ring on to the arbor, or driv- 
? the arbor out of this pulley or ring, when the 
illet comes in contact with the end of the ar- 
r, it will not jamb or destroy the center hole. 

Now reduce the diameter for a distance of 
" on each end, as shown. The object of this 
iuction is to have a suitable place to attach 
} driving dog. Then file a flat place on both 
>ulders for the dog set screw to screw against, 
w harden and temper the mandrel all over, 
the material is tool steel, for hardening and 

tempering follow instructions shown on page 59 
of Lathe Book. If the arbor is made of mild 
steel, case harden both ends only as far as the 
shoulders. Follow instructions given on page 
59 of Lathe Book. 

The mandrel has a slight taper, the small end 
of the fitting surface, finishing .001" under the 
standard dimensions — 1%"; while the other 
end finishes .002" above the standard dimen- 
sions. Therefore there is a difference of .003" 
on the fitting diameter of the arbor, on a length 
of 5%". This is to allow a piece to be driven 
off and on an arbor easily, and always from the 
same end. 


This book contains 41 photographs 
showing the interior views of some of the 
practical school machine shops in this 
country. Postal will bring a free copy. 
Give your street and number to insure de- 
Digitized by 


[ FIfty-sIx ] 

Job No. 27 

Material - Carbon Steel. 

No. Piece 8 Retfuired - 1 

DH^WtNG N0.Z07 F^RT No. 107 


Scale V\lork to fi^itres. 


South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

An Excellent Project for the School Machine Shop 

The above illustration shows an 8" Bench Lathe 
uplete with spur center, cup center, and hand 
jt for wood turning. Countershaft is not shown 
cut but is included in the equipment. Lathe 
ces 14'' between centers, the spindles are equip- 
i with No. 1 Morse Taper, head spindle has a 
' hole its entire length, bearings are of phos- 
or bronze and are adjustable, belt on spindle 
le 1%", weight of lathe finished without 
mtershaft, 80 pounds; weight of countershaft 
Ished, 60 pounds. 
To schools interested in this lathe as a project, 

[ Fifty- 

we can furnish, if desired, all the material in the 
rough, also the rough castings necessary to build 
the lathe and countershaft, centers, and hand rest. 
For the prices on this material see price list 2-B 
which accompanies booklet "How to Build an 8" 
Lathe," described on opposite page. 

The 8" Bench Lathe is an essential project for 
the school machine shop because the lathe when 
finished can be operated to advantage in the wood ^ 
shop, where the boys can have an opportunityQ I p 
to see the lathe in operation and'to^study the use^*^^ 
of the various lathe parts. 

eight ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 


"How to Make an 8-incli Lathe," is a text book 
for students in the school machine shop. It con- 
tains detailed drawings of each part of the lathe, 
countershaft, centers and hand rest. The book 
also contains detailed instructions as to how to 
proceed with the machine work on the parts 
shown on each drawing. 


The above drawing shows a complete assembly 
of the 8-inch Bench Lathe. This drawing is a re- 
duced page from the book ''How to Make an 8-inch 

To the smaller schools, which are not equipped 
to plane the bed of the lathe, we can furnish the 
bed planed at a small additional cost. 


"How to Make an 8-inch Bench Lathe," postpaid on re- 
ceipt of 10 cents, coin or stamps accepted. Copy of this 
book sent free to any educator. 

[ Fifty-nine ] 

3d by 


Reducingr a Steel Shaft from 4" to ^i/^' 

ninitir- ^ 

in one chip on a 16" No. 40 South Bend Lathe. 

[ Sixty ] 

South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, Indiana 

Photogrraph of a Steel Chip. 

The above cut represents a photograph of the steel chip which is being produced on a lathe on 
the opposite page. This chip is under the actual size, as may be seen by comparing with Sk measur- 
ing rule, on account of the page being too small to show it full size. Digitize^ ^^ ^ 009l-^ 

[ Sixty-one ] 







































































































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South Bend Lathe Works, South Bend, India na 





"How to Run a Lathe'' 

A Partial Ldst of Contents 

Layout for a small machine shop. 

Speed and diameter of line shaft. 

Horsepower required to drive a lathe. 

Rules for figuring size of pulleys. 

How to find the pitch of a screw. 

Milling and keyseating in the lathe. 

How to case-harden a piece of mild steel. 

How to harden and temper a lathe tool. 

Rule for gearing any lathe for thread cutting. 

How to fit a lathe chuck to a lathe. 

Cutting speeds for different metals. 

How to make a boring bar for the lathe. 

Application and use of lathe tools. 

Boring in the lathe. 

TurrJng taper in the lathe. 

How to reseat a valve in the lathe. 

Grinding in the lathe. 

Making and fitting of piston rings. 

Making of ball race and cone, etc., etc. 

The hand-book entitled, "How to Run a Lathe," is 
in use as text-books in schools of the United States. 
It teaches the fundamental principles of machine shop 
work for the beginner thus relieving the instructor of 
much unnecessary detail. 

A copy of this valuable little 80-page book will be 
sent, postpaid, to any address on receipt of Ific. Coin ^ 
or stamps of any country accepted. f r>r\(i\c> 

A copy of xhis Text Book free, postpaid, to any educator